The outbreak of atypical and human‐to‐human transmissible pathogen which precipitated extreme acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐COV‐2) was first reported in Wuhan Metropolis, Hubei province, China in December 2019 (Hu et al., 2020). In a while, the pathogen was recognized as novel coronavirus 2019‐nCoV, which is renamed to COVID‐19 (Boulos & Estella, 2020). Ongoing outbreak of COVID‐19 continues decimating the worldwide inhabitants and overwhelmed well being techniques globally. Globally, the medical trade continues to be overwhelmed by the COVID‐19 pandemic as circumstances will increase exponentially (Raju, Mohd, HaleemKhan, & Abid, 2020). As of November 10, 2020, there have been about 51,359,570 individuals contaminated with COVID‐19 and 1,271,398 deaths worldwide (Worldometers, 2020). There was confusion on how COVID‐19 is transmitted in asymptomatic people no matter WHO suggestions. On account of accelerating variety of COVID‐19 circumstances, the World Well being Group (WHO) declared a public well being emergency in February, 2020, which led to the closure of nonessential providers, faculties, travelling restrictions and recursive nationwide lockdowns (WHO, 2020). These precarious measures are severely affected with restricted data on how COVID‐19 spreads in the course of the incubation interval particularly in asymptomatic people. Some students together with Wu, Tiantian, Qun, and Zhicong (2020), Zheng (2020), and Zhao et al. (2020) said that COVID‐19 might be transmitted by way of contact, droplets, airborne, fomite, faecal‐oral, bloodborne, mom‐to‐youngster, and animal‐to‐human transmission (Alfonso et al., 2020). The shortage of dependable data on how COVID‐19 is transmitted varies from nation to nation which has precipitated detrimental results on world economies, training, companies and well being techniques globally.
COVID‐19 affected virtually all international locations globally and varied superior and rising applied sciences are required to deal with varied issues attributable to the magnitude of the pandemic within the well being techniques (Mohd et al., 2020). COVID‐19 is extreme in international locations that have an amazing scarcity of reverse transcription‐polymerase chain response (RT‐PCR) COVID‐19 testing equipment, detection, screening, and monitoring instruments which enhance the probabilities of spreading the illness. As of November 10, 2020, there are not any accepted therapies for COVID‐19, thus present measures depend on prevention, surveillance, and containment (Mbunge, 2020). Globally, bodily distancing, social distancing, arms sanitization, common temperature testing, carrying of nostril and face masks, in addition to handwashing, have been carried out as interventions to fight the unfold of COVID‐19 (Mehtar, Wolfgang, Ndèye, & Abdoulaye, 2020) however the main problem lies on the weak well being‐care techniques, monetary burden, overcrowding, group habits, poverty, and COVID‐19 preparedness and response plan.
Encumbered by prolonged lockdowns, travelling restrictions, and steady enhance of COVID‐19 circumstances, individuals ought to contemplate the position of rising applied sciences in responding to world emergency of COVID‐19 which overwhelmed well being techniques of the contaminated international locations. Rising applied sciences together with geospatial know-how, AI, huge knowledge, cloud computing, telemedicine, blockchain, 5G know-how, sensible purposes, IoMT, robotics, and additive manufacturing are considerably essential as evident in epidemiological modeling, sensible life monitoring and catastrophe administration. For instance, world positioning applied sciences present exact catastrophe location positions for aid and rehabilitation functions. The identical ideology may be integrated in combating COVID‐19 pandemic. For example, rising applied sciences can help healthcare supply to make sure efficient COVID‐19 detection, monitoring, diagnosing, screening, surveillance, monitoring, and consciousness. Such applied sciences may also help to trace the unfold of COVID‐19 virus, contact tracing (Elliot, 2020), figuring out the excessive‐danger sufferers, mapping COVID‐19 hotspots, actual‐time case surveillance, screening, actual‐time communication with healthcare professionals, and COVID‐19 activity drive. Additionally, rising applied sciences may play an amazing position in creating COVID‐19 pointers, responses, and insurance policies which finally enhance planning, reporting course of, remedy, contact tracing, prioritizing and allocation of sources, case‐primarily based surveillance system, improvement of medicine and vaccines, and creating consciousness. In addition to, travelling restrictions and recursive nationwide lockdowns, a number of firms together with the healthcare service trade are prompted to think about adopting rising applied sciences to keep away from human‐to‐human contact and contacting bodily objects, whereas enhancing providers supply to the needy.
Rising applied sciences are urgently wanted to successfully enhance the effectivity of the worldwide efforts in epidemic monitoring, virus monitoring, prevention, management, remedy, useful resource allocation, vaccine improvement, predicting outbreaks, and vulnerabilities in each developed and creating international locations (Harold, 2013). Presently, contaminated international locations depend on contact tracing, quarantining of circumstances and contacts (Whitworth, 2020), energetic case discovering and testing. Nonetheless, Greiner et al. (2015) highlighted challenges of contact tracing course of from the earlier experiences with Ebola outbreak. These challenges embody contact‐particular person identification, violation of safety and privateness of contact‐individuals, enrolling contact‐individuals, finding contact‐individuals, monitoring contact tracing personnel, rising publicity of contact tracing personnel to COVID‐19 resulting in stigmatization, and call tracing personnel might be carriers of the pandemic. For example, some contact‐individuals don’t have any bodily tackle, some reside in rural areas the place there are not any avenue names and identification playing cards, some individuals use nicknames, thus, contact tracing personnel must rely solely on bodily descriptions of contact‐individuals. To alleviate these challenges, rising applied sciences can help healthcare supply to deal with COVID‐19.
Subsequently, this examine geared toward offering a complete overview of utility, actions, and effectiveness of rising applied sciences that may be utilized for detecting, monitoring, diagnosing, screening, surveillance, mapping hotspots, monitoring, and creating consciousness with the intention to stop and deal with COVID‐19. The article addresses the next questions:
- What are the rising applied sciences which have been used for tackling COVID‐19?
- How efficient are rising applied sciences in tackling COVID‐19?
- Which international locations have adopted the applied sciences to deal with COVID‐19?
We utilized systematic literature overview (SLR) following the rules in Kitchenham (2004) to information the literature search in varied digital databases on rising applied sciences for detecting, monitoring, diagnosing, screening, surveillance, mapping hotspots, monitoring, and creating consciousness to forestall and tackling COVID‐19 (Determine 1). Digital databases explored are Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Xplore Digital Library, Affiliation for Computing Equipment (ACM) Digital Library, Wiley Library, and Springer Hyperlink. The steps adopted by this overview have been guided by the procedures said by Kitchenham (2004) specifically; search technique, examine choice (inclusion/exclusion standards), examine eligibility, and high quality evaluation.
2.1 Looking out technique
The beforehand revealed research from the onset of the COVID‐19 outbreak have been searched primarily based on the next search string: Digital Know-how “COVID‐19” OR Ebola OR “HIV AIDS” OR Illness OR Tuberculosis OR Malaria OR Tackling OR Monitoring OR “Social Distancing” OR Analysis OR Therapy OR Prevention AND “Synthetic intelligence” OR” Augmented Actuality” OR “5G Mobile know-how” OR “machine studying” OR “Web of Medical Issues.”
2.2 Research choice (inclusion and exclusion standards)
We chosen peer‐reviewed articles that have been written in English, from the onset of the COVID‐19 outbreak. These articles have been additional screened primarily based on title and summary. We excluded opinion items, nonpeer‐reviewed articles, incomplete articles, and research in different languages with no English translation.
2.3 Research eligibility and high quality evaluation
All articles have been double screened for eligibility and high quality evaluation by all authors. Articles have been examined their titles and abstracts. All duplicates have been eradicated. To make sure that all articles with details about rising applied sciences and associated to COVID‐19 are included, we carried out citations chain for extra research for every retrieved article. The diploma of accuracy and reliability of high quality evaluation of articles was measured utilizing Cohen Kappa statistic (Cohen, 1968), subsequently, the substantial settlement of authors was 77.3%, with Cohen’s ok: 0.50022.
We included 51 articles from digital databases, revealed in 2020. We recognized the next vital purposes of rising applied sciences, their roles in combating COVID‐19 pandemic and their respective challenges as proven in Desk 1. For every rising know-how, its actions and roles have been additional analyzed within the subsections beneath the dialogue part. The examine recognized the next rising applied sciences to be related in tackling COVID‐19: AI; Social media platforms; IoMT; Digital Actuality/Augmented Actuality; Blockchain; Additive manufacturing; 5G Mobile know-how and Sensible Purposes; Geographical Info Techniques; Large Knowledge; Autonomous Robots.
|Rising applied sciences||Highlights of the options of the applied sciences||Challenges|
|Social media platforms||
|Web of Medical Issues||
|Digital actuality/Augmented Actuality||
|5G mobile know-how & sensible purposes||
|Geographical data techniques||
3.1 Abstract report of various COVID‐19 primarily based applied sciences
Desk 1 presents a abstract report of various COVID‐19 primarily based applied sciences. The options of those applied sciences are highlighted vis‐à‐vis the challenges skilled in using the applied sciences.
4.1 Purposes of Synthetic Intelligence in combating COVID‐19 pandemic
Synthetic Intelligence algorithms play an amazing position in speedy detection, classification, identification, screening, and quantitation of sufferers with COVID‐19 as proven in Desk 2. These AI algorithms have been utilized in machine studying, deep studying and laptop imaginative and prescient to find insightful patterns in datasets. Javaid et al. (2020) said that there are restricted makes use of of AI applied sciences resulting from lack of information. Additionally, Wim (2020) additional said that AI has not been totally explored on monitoring and prediction of COVID‐19 circumstances in affected continents corresponding to Europe, South and North America, and Africa. This is likely to be attributed to the dearth of an enormous quantity of historic knowledge to coach the AI fashions, which ends up in creating AI forecasting fashions that depend on noisy knowledge and social media knowledge. This severely impacts the efficiency and accuracy of the forecasting mannequin due to completely different knowledge codecs, lack of information standardization and interoperability, and lacking values which is commonly inaccuracy and unreliable (Agbehadji, Bankole, Alfred, & Richard, 2020; Elliot, Fanwell, & Kinsley, 2018). The present literature, depicted in Desk 2, exhibits that China is the main pack in implementing AI applied sciences in combating COVID‐19 pandemic. Nations corresponding to the USA of America (USA), South Africa, Brazil, and India have recorded excessive COVID‐19 circumstances of 5,595,835; 589,886; 3,343,925; 2,701,604, respectively as of August 17, 2020; haven’t utterly and efficiently carried out AI strategies in combating COVID‐19 (Worldometers, 2020). These international locations with excessive an infection price can make the most of AI to detect, diagnose, establish and predict COVID‐19 new circumstances. Majority international locations diagnose COVID‐19 utilizing transcriptase‐polymerase chain response (RT–PCR) check which takes as much as 2 days to finish and there may be at the moment a scarcity of RT–PCR check kits (Xueyan et al., 2020). Well being techniques are overwhelmed with rising demand for RT–PCR check kits which led some international locations to focus solely on contact tracing relatively than testing the affected populace. Subsequently, there’s a want for AI fashions for early detection and prognosis of COVID‐19 utilizing chest computed tomography (CT) photos and may save radiologists’ time. For instance, Wang et al. (2020) developed a COVID‐Web deep studying mannequin (with 98.9% accuracy) to diagnose COVID‐19 utilizing chest CT photos. Additionally, AI fashions can be utilized to develop COVID‐19 vaccine improvement and drug discovery. For example, Abhimanyu, Vineet, and Oge (2020) state that Flinders College utilized AI‐primarily based program known as Search Algorithm for Ligands (SAM) which generates trillions of artificial compounds and decide one of the best trial candidates as vaccine adjuvants, thus decreasing COVID‐19 vaccine improvement course of. This might profit well being policymakers, well being care professionals to successfully allocate sources to excessive‐danger zones and facilitate analysis (Raju et al., 2020). It’s undoubtedly that AI applied sciences are conceivably decreasing the burden of COVID‐19; nonetheless, these applied sciences face the next challenges corresponding to: (1) restricted entry to a big COVID‐19 dataset for coaching and testing AI fashions; (2) The reliability and accuracy of AI fashions are additionally threatened with the supply of unstructured, noisy, and outlier COVID‐19 knowledge; (3) Failing to detect asymptomatic COVID‐19 suspected people (Sera et al., 2020).
|Creator(s)||AI technique||Actions||Nation||Effectiveness of the mannequin||Limitations|
|Lin et al. (2020)||Deep studying mannequin||Identification of COVID‐19 utilizing chest CT photos||China||96% accuracy||Overlap within the chest CT photos identification with pneumonia. Additionally, the examine doesn’t contemplate different viral pneumonia for comparability and doesn’t decide the severity of the COVID‐19 from CT photos|
|Arni and Jose (2020)||Machine Studying algorithm||Identification of COVID‐19 utilizing cell‐telephone primarily based survey||Georgia||Not said||The examine doesn’t contemplate COVID‐19 asymptomatic sufferers|
Chuansheng et al. (2020)
|Deep studying mannequin||Detection for COVID‐19 from chest CT photos||China||90.1% accuracy||UNet mannequin was educated utilizing imperfect floor‐fact masks, and it might be improved utilizing 3D segmentation|
|Fatima , Abu‐Naser, Alajrami, Abu‐Nasser, and Alashqar (2020)||Convolutional neural community||COVID‐19 Detection||China||97% accuracy||The convolutional neural community was educated and examined with 130 CVID‐19 Chest X‐ray photos. There’s a must redeploy the mannequin with a big dataset and examine the efficiency|
|Lu et al. (2020)||Deep studying mannequin||COVID‐19 quantitative chest CT evaluation||China||65.5% accuracy||No systematic affirmation for all sufferers on the first and second observe up therefore the mannequin nonetheless wants radiologists’ supervision|
|Gozes et al. (2020)||Deep studying||COVID‐19 classification utilizing CT picture evaluation||China||99.6%||The mannequin detects, quantify, and observe COVID‐19 and mannequin is at the moment being expanded to a bigger inhabitants to enhance the quantification and monitoring. On account of lack of high quality dataset, the mannequin didn’t carry out properly on the monitoring of the contaminated particular person and call individuals|
|Zixin, Ge, Jin, & Xiong, (2020)||Modified Auto‐encoder||Forecasting COVID‐19 circumstances||China||Not said||The examine utilized cluster evaluation technique as a substitute of modified auto‐encoder features due to lack of information|
|Xueyan et al. (2020)||Deep Studying (convolutional neural community) & Machine studying (help vector machine)||Speedy prognosis of COVID‐19 sufferers||China||92%||The examine used a small pattern which could have an effect on the generalizability of the mannequin. Additionally, the examine focuses solely on COVID‐19 constructive circumstances|
|Matheus, Ramon, Viviana, and Leandro (2020)||Machine studying (help vector regression)||Forecasting COVID‐19 circumstances||Brazil||Accuracy of 92.77%||The examine proposed to enhance the efficiency of the mannequin by incorporating stacking‐ensemble studying and deep studying in a pattern dataset, nonetheless, knowledge augmentation and multi‐goal optimization weren’t carried out to cope with small knowledge samples.|
|Li et al. (2020a, 2020b)||XGBoost machine studying‐primarily based mannequin||Predict the mortality charges of COVID‐19 sufferers||China||Accuracy of 90%||The examine developed XGBoost classifier to foretell the mortality of COVID‐19 affected person 10 days upfront. Because the mannequin is knowledge‐pushed and interpretability, the outcomes might fluctuate primarily based on the standard and dimension of the dataset therefore the examine is restricted to scientific settings|
|Vinay and Lei (2020)||Deep studying (lengthy quick‐time period reminiscence‐LSTM)||Forecasting of COVID‐19 transmission||Canada||Accuracy of 92.67%||The pattern dimension used was small|
|Sarbjit et al. (2020)||least sq. help vector machine||Prediction of COVID‐19 confirmed circumstances||Italy, Spain, France, United Kingdom, United States of America (USA)||99% approximate accuracy||The mannequin was examined utilizing Ljung‐Field check, subsequently additional modeling of information sequence is required to examine for linear dependencies and adequacy of the mannequin|
|Abdelhafid, Fouzi, Abdelkader, and Ying (2020)||Deep studying strategies (LSTM, Recurrent Neural Community, Bidirectional LSTM, Variational Auto Encoder, and Gated recurrent models)||Forecasting COVID‐19 circumstances utilizing time‐sequence knowledge||Italy, Spain, France, China, USA, Australia||
||As a result of poor knowledge high quality (noisy, incomplete, format) and the restricted dimension of the dataset, the mannequin reported experiencing vanishing gradient issues resulting in various forecasting outcomes for all of the international locations.|
|Zohair et al. (2020)||Machine studying approaches (linear fashions, SVM, Okay‐Nearest Neighbors Regressor, and Choice Tree)||Predicting COVID‐19 mortality price||France, UK||The examine exhibits that climate variables play an essential position to foretell COVID‐19 mortality price||The examine wants some enhancements by together with extra climate options corresponding to wind velocity and rainfall|
|Hameni, Bowong, Tewa, and Kurths et al. (2020)||Deep studying mannequin (Ensemble Kalman filter)||Forecasts of the COVID‐19 pandemic||Cameroon||The normalized ahead sensitivity index of the essential replica quantity, R0 = 2.9495 that means that COVID‐19 would disappear with out vaccines, and enhance of latest COVID‐19 circumstances||
Generalization of outcomes was primarily based on quick‐ time period forecasting and small dataset.
|Mohammad et al. (2020)||Deep Studying mannequin (ResNet)||Detection of Covid‐19 from chest X‐ray photos||China||95% of accuracy||Dataset used was restricted to 50 photos which makes it tough to find out its effectiveness and effectivity with a big dataset|
|Wang, Alexander, and Zhong (2020)||Deep Studying mannequin (COVID‐Web)||Detection of COVID‐19 circumstances from chest X‐ray photos||Canada||Accuracy of 93.3%||COVID‐Web achieves excessive positives therefore the necessity for additional PCR testing and it could enhance the burden for the healthcare system|
There’s vital progress within the implementation of AI fashions in tackling COVID‐19. Desk 2 exhibits that AI ideas particularly deep studying fashions and machine studying fashions have been utilized to carry out the next actions:
- Identification of COVID‐19 utilizing chest CT photos
- Detection of COVID‐19 from chest CT photos
- COVID‐19 quantitative chest CT evaluation
- Classification of COVID‐19 utilizing CT picture evaluation
- Speedy prognosis of COVID‐19 sufferers
- Forecasting COVID‐19 circumstances
- Predicting COVID‐19 mortality price
- Monitoring COVID‐19 sufferers and call‐individuals
Nonetheless, these fashions carried out in a different way primarily based on the COVID‐19 dataset used and completely different algorithms utilized. For example, research carried out by Abdelhafid et al. (2020), Vinay and Lei (2020), Muhammad and Hina (2020), and Lin et al. (2020) carried out higher with greater than 90% accuracy. These research have their respective limitations as depicted in Desk 2. Regardless of the above‐talked about limitations, AI fashions contribute considerably amid COVID‐19 pandemic. Desk 2 exhibits that China is the main nation that has utilized AI fashions for detecting, monitoring, diagnosing, screening, surveillance, mapping and monitoring COVID‐19. This is likely to be attributed to the supply of COVID‐19 datasets.
4.2 Software of IoMT in combating COVID‐19 pandemic
IoMT includes the applying of Web of Issues (IoT) ideas, instruments, and rules in well being and medical domains by way of interconnected medical gear, sensible well being purposes, and sensible sensors (Swati & Chandana, 2020). It additionally consists of creating sensible purposes and sensible wearable gadgets particularly for enhancing well being care supply. Throughout the COVID‐19 pandemic, the IoMT modifications how healthcare providers are delivered, shifting bodily contact to distant well being service supply resulting from restricted mobility. That is evident by a number of IoMT purposes which can be built-in into well being techniques to scale back the burden on the healthcare techniques. These IoMT purposes are depicted in Desk 3. A number of international locations together with the USA, China, India, Israel, Poland, Croatia, Canada, Bahrain, Singapore, Australia, Colombia, Ghana, and Austria carried out telemedicine methods corresponding to reside webinars, distant session, and video conferencing; telehealth and sensible thermometers to battle COVID‐19 pandemic (Vinay, Vikas, Vatsal, & Mohsen, 2020). These international locations carried out IoMT purposes to enhance actual‐time COVID‐19 knowledge entry as depicted in Desk 3. The IoMT purposes are used to:
- Set up a web based COVID‐19 actual‐time replace database
- Actual‐time updating of fashions of COVID‐19 prognosis
- Information healthcare professionals to manage COVID‐19 remedy
- Present session providers by way of entrance‐line healthcare professionals
- Monitoring of COVID‐19 sufferers who’re on prognosis
- Mapping of COVID‐19 hotspots areas
- Create COVID‐19 consciousness by continuously sending notification on contact‐individuals, indicators, and signs and placement
- Blockchain security system that associates particular person’s identification with blockchain data to find out whether or not he/she is allowed to maneuver out from the quarantine facility, therefore, minimizing the danger
- Securing digital medical data utilizing blockchain‐primarily based and IoMT ideas
|(Li et al., 2020a, 2020b)||nCapp||
|(Nasajpour et al., 2020)||DetectaChem||
|(Nataliya & Nadezhda, 2020)||Social Monitoring||
|(Nasajpour et al., 2020)||Selfie app||
|(Kirsten et al., 2020)||Cease Corona||
|(Vinay & Lei, 2020)||Civitas||
|(Nasajpour et al., 2020)||BeAware Bahrain||
|(Benny & Eyal, 2020)||Hamagen||
|(Cho, Daphne, & Yun, 2020)||TraceTogether||
|(Columbian Nationwide Institute of Well being, 2020)||CoronApp||
|(David, 2020a, 2020b)||COVIDSafe||
|(Kwabena & Shankar, 2020)||GH Covid‐19 Tracker||
|(Thiele, 2020)||Stopp Corona||
- Standardization of COVID‐19 dataset
- COVID‐19 knowledge interoperability points attributable to heterogeneous knowledge format and dimension
- Sharing of COVID‐19 knowledge might breach privateness and safety of the person knowledge
- Malicious assault of healthcare gear might be a serious disadvantage in interconnected IoMT infrastructure.
- Heterogeneous community protocols and sensible purposes may delay the implementation of IoMT in combating COVID‐19 pandemic
4.3 Purposes of Blockchain in combating COVID‐19 pandemic
Blockchain is steady changing into acknowledged in varied domains together with healthcare techniques and biomedical in securing data amongst two events to enhance knowledge safety by validating whether or not the transactions happed or not (Antonio et al., 2020; Tivani & Ellen, 2020). There’s restricted proof on the implementation of Blockchain to battle COVID‐19 pandemic. Nonetheless, blockchain know-how has been carried out in Canada in an utility known as Civitans (Vinay et al., 2020). IBM additionally developed a blockchain utility known as MiPasa, to implement safety when sharing and streaming well being knowledge and placement on IBM cloud platforms as depicted in Desk 4. In combating COVID‐19, healthcare professionals, people can make the most of these blockchain purposes to make sure safety and privateness of well being knowledge.
|(Vinay et al., 2020)||Civitas||
|(Vinay & Lei, 2020)||MiPasa||
Challenges of implementing blockchain know-how in well being techniques are attributed to:
- Lack of technical abilities to combine current blockchain Software programming interface (API) with well being data techniques
- Lack of understanding in regards to the potential of blockchain within the well being techniques
- Scalability issues for the reason that APIs are offered by a 3rd occasion
- Integrating blockchain into well being techniques continues to be a problem due to some moral points and the know-how being comparatively new and immature
- Unclear WHO laws and requirements on the mixing of blockchain know-how in well being techniques
- Knowledge leakage by way of blockchain API and cloud‐primarily based platforms threaten its adoption in well being techniques
4.4 5G mobile know-how and sensible purposes
The 5G know-how offers the quickest web velocity and excessive bandwidth which is essential for actual‐time communication. Throughout COVID‐19, this know-how performs an important position in public well being administration that adopted well being sensible purposes, huge knowledge providers, and the Web of Medical Issues (Karthikeyan, Upadhyaya, Vaishya & Jain, 2020). In addition to the 5G conspiracy concept, there may be larger realization and wider understanding of the advantages of 5G know-how corresponding to low latency, excessive‐velocity transmission and sharing of COVID‐19 well being knowledge and reliability. For example, set up of 5G know-how in China overcame the challenges in containing the unfold of COVID‐19 by way of distant session in lots of hospitals, sensible cameras related with 5G know-how, sensible thermometers (noncontact brow infrared digital thermometer), clever disinfection unmanned automobiles, clever medical robotic taking swabs and excessive velocity reside broadcast (Ouyang, 2020). 5G know-how is slowly rolled out in China and the USA but it surely additionally faces challenges corresponding to:
- 5G know-how requires enormous capital injections and overcome the bandwidth, latency, and adaptability points inherent to the present community know-how
- Integration of sensible purposes into well being techniques may trigger a breach of well being privateness
- 5G continues to be at its nascent, and might not be supported with the present networking infrastructure
- No WHO pointers on well being knowledge shared and transmitted by way of 5G know-how
- In some international locations, the adoption of 5G know-how continues to be debatable after its conspiracy concept and false impression (Wasim, Josep, Joseph, & López, 2020)
4.5 Purposes of digital actuality in combating COVID‐19 pandemic
Digital actuality know-how has been in existence for the reason that late Nineties but it surely was not totally explored up till the curiosity slowly light away resulting from a yawning hole between public expectations and technological limitations (Digital Actuality Society, 2017). Digital actuality technological limitations together with dimension, Nausea, dizziness, quickly impaired imaginative and prescient and lack within the sense of presence have been reported as opposed results within the late Nineties (Panteleimon et al., 2017). The current breakthrough in digital transformation corresponding to movement detection, interactive show techniques, and kinaesthetic communication introduced an evolution in digital actuality know-how which reached notable milestones in medical training. Digital actuality purposes overcome cognitive and psychological impediments, impairments, and current unprecedented alternatives in COVID‐19 medical training and coaching (Javaid & Abid, 2020). Digital actuality know-how offers an interactive, synthetic three‐dimensional laptop‐generated world that simulates bodily actuality in a digital setting (Brenda, 2006). This might be utilized in coaching and training of healthcare professionals because it helps nonphysical contact and social distancing. The customers of the digital actuality know-how interact themselves with the system by way of the interface of the VR’s enter and out gadgets which understand sensory data much like the actual‐world. The digital actuality know-how consists of headsets built-in with enter sensors that are programmed to show feelings in a digital surroundings. The immersive VR system offers many sides of visible, auditory and tactile sensory fixed on Head‐Mounted Show (HMD) or Head‐Coupled Show (HCD) to make sure intrinsic expertise in a protected digital surroundings (Zhang, 2017). The HCD and HMD gadgets are extra dominant out there due to their intrinsic properties corresponding to portability and miniaturization. These properties assist well being employees and group participation amid COVID‐19 prevention, consciousness, training, and coaching to enhance their data, abilities, mobility, and cognitive talents to enhance high quality of care. The mixing of immersive digital actuality and e‐studying platforms enable college students in studying establishments to discover digital 3‐dimensional COVID‐19 virus, anatomical positions and visualize how it’s transmitted in a manner that’s unattainable and tough in bodily actuality. This will additionally assist to create consciousness in faculties, schools and universities. Additionally, digital actuality can be utilized for counseling individuals affected with COVID‐19 and experiencing psychological well being points corresponding to trauma, nervousness, psychological misery, panic, and different stress‐associated psychopathological signs (Mohd et al., 2020).
Nonetheless, the adoption of digital actuality in training and coaching encounters face some limitations and boundaries regardless of its large alternatives and advantages. Excessive value and computing energy to simulate the sensible digital surroundings are a few of the main limitations of using digital actuality in medical training particularly low‐earnings international locations (Brian, 2017). Though Google Cardboard manufactured inexpensive digital actuality gadgets however resulting from poor supporting infrastructure and sluggish web velocity threatens the total realization of digital actuality know-how, therefore the necessity for 5G know-how to enhance web velocity. That is one other disadvantage to undertake VR in medical training. One other limitation is the dearth of technical digital actuality specialists to construct digital actuality purposes and digital worlds that finest swimsuit the classroom setup (Kleinermann et al., 2017). It is usually time‐consuming to coach healthcare professionals, sufferers and COVID‐19 activity group learn how to use VR gadgets. For example, photos and textual content can blurry if the top‐mounted digital actuality gadgets are improperly adjusted, and the extra cognitive load of studying learn how to navigate digital world requires extra time for healthcare educators to plan their classes and time to show learners learn how to use the VR gadgets and purposes (Hsin‐Kai, Silvia, Hsin‐Yi, & Jyh‐Chong, 2013; Hussein & Nätterdal, 2015).
4.6 Software of geographic data techniques and world positioning system to battle COVID‐19 pandemic
Geographic data techniques (GIS) and world positioning system (GPS) purposes can present actual‐time mapping, monitoring and combating COVID‐19 pandemic. These rising applied sciences act as communication instruments blossomed over a sure interval they usually have utilized to mannequin catastrophe administration, perceive, and monitoring infectious ailments corresponding to Malaria, Ebola, Cholera, and yellow fever.
For example, Mukhopadhyay (2015) and Chatterjee, Suman, Sujit, and Shanta (2020) utilized GPS to map cholera circumstances utilizing satellite tv for pc‐primarily based recording techniques to grasp cholera preventive measures by offering coordinates of households and insights on how individuals work together with the surroundings. GIS instruments can map and visualize the connection between location coordinates and COVID‐19 pandemic circumstances to map scorching spots. Amid COVID‐19 pandemic, GIS instruments are paramount to investigate and visualize the unfold of COVID‐19. For instance, Johns Hopkins College Middle for Techniques Science and Engineering makes use of ArcGIS On-line to trace the unfold of COVID‐19 (Maged & Estella, 2020a, 2020b), WHO additionally implements ArcGIS Operations Dashboard to map outbreak supply (Abolfazl, Behzad, & Kiara, 2020), USA makes use of HealthMap to collate COVID‐19 knowledge and alert individuals dwelling round or close to COVID‐19 confirmed circumstances (Ensheng, Hongru, & Lauren, 2020). GIS instruments corresponding to “shut contact detector” app in China, help huge knowledge and IoT knowledge processing instruments that analyze individuals’s migration patterns and make knowledgeable choices (Maged & Estella, 2020a, 2020b). GIS and GPS purposes will also be very helpful to:
- Present actual‐time COVID‐19 geolocated updates
- Mapping of public occasions that violate social distancing and the restricted variety of individuals
- Distribute of sources by way of digital provide chain maps to make sure efficient allocation of COVID‐19 PPEs and medicines
- Spatial segmentation and dynamic mapping for COVID‐19
- Decide COVID‐19 transmission danger components corresponding to socio‐financial and environmental variables
Nonetheless, the applying of GIS purposes to battle COVID‐19 is influenced by the next challenges: (1) restricted entry to spatial COVID‐19 knowledge for spatial mapping and visualization, (2) requires change of laws to trace contact‐individuals.
Regardless of all the numerous progress within the utility of rising applied sciences in compacting COVID‐19, there may be nonetheless a necessity for additional implementation of those applied sciences for detecting, monitoring, diagnosing (Tsikala et al., 2020), screening, surveillance, mapping, monitoring, and creating consciousness (Aishwarya, Puneet, & Ankita, 2020). The scale, availability and accessibility to COVID‐19 knowledge enhance efficiency of AI fashions, GIS ideas, and IoMT purposes. Future work ought to give attention to strengthening the present applied sciences and there’s a robust want for the emergence of a strong computationally clever mannequin for early differential prognosis of COVID‐19. Additionally, the longer term work ought to give attention to the moral framework and acceptable use of rising applied sciences when tackling COVID‐19 pandemic whereas observing the safety and privateness of individuals’s knowledge.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The authors declare no potential battle of curiosity.